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Wednesday, 18 January 2017

We Already know that Reliance jio has offers Volte Supported network, for this ultra low cost and free Voice plans, Now Reliance jio is planning to release 4G-Enabled VoLTE Mobiles at low cost worth 1500 rs. According to twitter user Rajath Kumar twit some one has leaked Jio feature phone in social media

The above image leaked that shows a normal candy bar mobile phone with a display and keypad. There are dedicated keys allotted for JioTV, MyJio, Jio Music, and Jio Cinema. A few other reports surfacing online claim that the new Reliance Jio 4G-VoLTE feature phone would use Spreadtrum chipsets. the phone also has front camera, However, the leaked image does not confirm the presence of cameras.

NEW DELHI: The telecom sector is expected to create two million jobs this year, thanks to increased data penetration and entry of new service providers, says a report.

The entry of new service providers, the government's initiatives like 'Make in India' and thrust on mobile economy will also add to the buoyancy in the sector, it said.

"While the overall hiring will see a boost, the verticals that will drive the manpower requirement are handset makers (1.76 million) followed by the service providers (0.37 million)," said the report compiled by TeamLease along with Telecom Sector Skill Council.

With 5G technology, it added, the infrastructure sector will catch up and add a plethora of opportunities in the long run.

"Infrastructure will add 0.92 million jobs by 2020-21 and the overall labour requirement for the sector by 2021 will be over 8.7 million," it added.

"While the increased focus on affordability, reduction of the prices of handset, operator's investments in improving networks, demonetisation and the following push for adoption of digital wallets will boost the availability of job openings in the sector, the sector still seems to be grappling with skill deficit," TeamLease Services Senior Vice President Neeti Sharma said.

New Delhi: Videocon Telecom, among the smallest telcos in India, will shut down operations in the Punjab circle from February 15, bringing to an end its mobile services in the country. The company has asked its 3 million customers to switch to other operators to ensure continuity of services.

Prepaid customers should exhaust their balance and subscribers being billed monthly should clear their dues before moving to other carriers, the company, operating as Quadrant Televentures Ltd., said in a notice on its website on Tuesday.

“Quadrant Televentures would be discontinuing mobile services with effect from midnight of February 15, 2017, in Punjab service area (entire state of Punjab including Chandigarh UT and Panchkula),” the unit of the diversified Videocon group said in the notice.

Telecom ATC, Bharti Infratel look to invest in fibre networks, small cells

KOLKATA: Telecom tower companies such as ATC and Bharti Infratel are exploring investments in fibre optic networks and small cells to create additional revenue opportunities as their primary rental revenue from mobile operators slows.

Telecom ATC, Bharti Infratel look Analysts and industry experts estimate that tower companies will need to spend $10 billion, or about Rs 68,000 crore, on fiberising networks and small cells over the next five years to get into new businesses in an increasingly data-centric arena.

Small cells are short-range mobile base stations to complement large macro-cell towers.

American Tower Corp (ATC), which has invested in fibre networks in Mexico, is looking to bring those learnings to India, its Asia president Amit Sharma has said. “Towercos will have to invest in new growth areas amid exponential data growth and spectral scarcity, and ATC is currently testing fibre and small cells opportunities in India,” he told ET.

Bharti Infratel, the tower arm of Bharti group, declined comment on upcoming investments in fibre optics or small cells.

Tuesday, 17 January 2017

LTE Advanced E-UTRAN R10/R11

E-UTRAN R10 / LTE-Advanced Delta course focuses on differences between E-UTRAN R8/R9 and E-UTRAN R10 also known as LTE-Advanced. The training covers a functional description of all major R10 enhancements together with the required signalling protocols modifications. 

Monday, 16 January 2017

World’s first 5G NR radio in Telecom

By 2021, we forecast that 7.7 billion mobile broadband subscriptions and 1.5 billion cellular IoT devices will depend on mobile networks worldwide. Leading operators - who want to be frontrunners in the networked society - are already planning their 5G networks to meet these needs.

In order to support growing demand from both people and things and the ever increasing traffic volumes, mobile operators are continuously striving to improve the capacity, quality and functionality that their networks. The road to next generation mobile networks, 5G, means operators want to continue to invest in the LTE technology that will be foundational to their 5G networks and business.

5G will encompass an evolution of today's 4G networks and the addition of a new, globally standardized radio access technology known as NR, which stands for New Radio.

First 5G NR radio, featuring massive MIMO and MU-MIMO

We are now introducing the industry’s first 5G NR-capable radio, called Ericsson AIR 6468. It features 64 transmit and 64 receive antennas enabling it to support our 5G plug-ins for both Massive MIMO and Multi-User MIMO.
The high-performance beamforming, required for Massive MIMO, is enabled through the use of a split Cloud RAN architecture, which brings the required intelligence and scalability to this new radio. And, the AIR 6468 is designed for compatibility with the 5G NR standard while also supporting LTE.

Gigabit LTE and Cloud RAN

We have also added new LTE software and hardware products that leverage key 5G technology concepts that operators can deploy in today’s networks to improve both performance and efficiency while preparing for 5G, including: 
  • First 5G NR radio for massive MIMO
  • Wideband radio with instant power sharing
  • Three new radios supporting Gigabit speeds for LTE
  • Small outdoor micro radio for unlicensed spectrum
  • Baseband variants for densification, PIM mitigation and Elastic RAN
  • Powerful spectrum analyzer software
  • Streamlined network deployment and delivery platform

3G Optimization Engineer position available in Dubai UAE.

Following are the requirements for ideal candidate

1) 4-5 years 3G Huawei Optimization Experience (Must)

2) 2-3 Year 3G Nokia Optimization Experience

3) Proven expertise of Network level optimization

4) Strong knowledge of features, parameters, counters etc

5) Fully familiar with Huawei Drive Test and other Analysis tools

Salary 5500-6000 USD
Email Address jobs.telec@gmail.comz

1. Android Mobile Application for Telecom users

Dear all, Please find below andriod application which is usefull for tecommunicatrion enggineers, such as BSS, NSS, Core , MS, Data-com, RF Engineers, transmission etc., 

1. Network Cell Info Lite

Network Cell Info provides cell locations in the map and separate network signal strength gauges for the serving (registered) cell and the neighbor cell. It covers all cellular networks including LTE, HSPA+, HSPA, WCDMA, EDGE, GSM, CDMA, EVDO. 

2. GPS Essentials

The most complete GPS app available on internet is GPS Essentials. It facilitate you to Navigate, manage waypoints, tracks, routes, and build your own dashboard.Below we have discussed every function of this useful android app in details.
Shows navigation values such as: Accuracy, Altitude, Speed, Battery, Bearing, Climb, Course, Date, Declination, Distance, ETA, Latitude, Longitude, Max Speed, Min Speed, Actual Speed, True Speed, Sunrise, Sunset, Moon set, Moon rise, Moon Phase, Target, Time, TTG, and Turn.
Show the orientation of the earth’s magnetic field, shows an arbitrary tracking angle and the current target. Also a marine orienteering compass.
Record tracks and view them on map. Export KML files and import into Google Maps, Google Earth and others.
Manage routes and view them on map. Import KML files from Google Maps, Google Earth and others. Create turn-by-turn instructions between waypoints.
A camera HUD (heads-up display) view to show your waypoints, take pictures and share them.
A map to show your waypoints. Convert mail addresses of your contacts to waypoint so that they can be used within the app.
GPS Essentials also Supports Google Maps,Google Maps v2, MapQuest, OpenStreetMap, Indoor Maps, Traffic, Buildings, Satellite and Terrain layers and map rotation.
A list of all your waypoints with export and import (KML, KMZ, GPX and LOC format).
A sky view of the current positions that shows satellites in view.
Supported position formats: UTM, MGRS, OSGB, Degree-Minute-Second, Degree-Minute-Fractions, Decimal, Mils. Supports over 230 datums.
Waypoints, routes and tracks can be exported as KML or GPX files and sent by email or uploaded to Google Docs or DropBox.
Download [GPS Essentials]

3. GSM Signal Monitoring

GSM Signal Monitoring is an advanced network monitor that helps you to watch the state of cellular network by gathering data about cell towers (cell Id, LAC, MNC, MCC, signal strength, speed etc.). The app supports GSM, UMTS and LTE networks.
Charts in the app show the changes of strength level and speed of mobile connection. Log and Statistics display the data about cells which were used by a mobile device. After importing of CLF file containing cell locations data can be displayed.
Note: If you are using dual SIM device the app will work only with the SIM inserted in the first slot.

4. OpenSignal


With OpenSignal you can map cellular coverage, find Wi-Fi hotspots, test and improve your reception & get faster data. Below few things help you to use this app.
  • Signal compass points you in the direction your signal is coming from, just walk towards it.
  • WiFi map allows you to easily locate nearby public networks.
  • Coverage maps allow you see the best places for signal.
  • Speedtest feature allows you to see the true speed of your connection (download, upload & latency)
  • NetworkRank allows you to see which carrier is best in your area.
  • See a map of local cell towers.
Download [OpenSignal]

5. Anti Jammer FREE

Anti Jammer FREE

Do you have in your house, apartment, villa, an alarm connected to a central alarm using GSM wireless technology?Most of these alarms work by sending messages to the alarm central when an unauthorized access to your home event is produced. Most companies of alarm installations are using GSM communication.Do you know what easy is to avoid the communication with the central alarm monitoring system?There are many devices capable of inhibiting the GSM signal. This devices are used to disable the use of mobile phones in certain public facilities such as hospitals, libraries, conference rooms, etc.

Anti Jammer is a FREE simple application for Android for detect the possibility of inhibition (disable) of GSM signal of your alarm system at your home for example, while you are sleeping. AntiJammer will play a siren sound on your phone that it will alert you in case there is a GSM signal failure that it could be produced for the use of a jammer. Anti Jammer will not replace your alarm system device, it will complement it!!!

Additionally, Anti Jammer also be used to identify some areas where your cell phone runs out of coverage.

6. G-NetTrack


This is a fieldtest/netmonitor application for UMTS/GSM/LTE/CDMA/EVDO network. The application monitors the serving CELLID, LEVEL, QUAL, MCC, MNC, LAC, technology, cell serving time and neighbor cells CELLID/PSC and LEVEL.

  • LEVEL and QUAL depend on technology:
  • 3G – RSCP and ECNO
  • 4G – RSRP and RSRQ
  • Only for 4G also SNR and CQI are monitored

Measurement availability depends on the phone (Click to Check phone measurement capabilities).

Pro version of G-NetTrack has some with additional following features.

  • INDOOR measurements
  • AUTO INDOOR mode for tunnels and places with bad GPS reception
  • added chart with serving and neighbor cells levels
  • Floorplans loading
  • New 3D map – different types of maps, 3D buildings, maps autocacheing
  • LTE serving and neighbor cells measurements
  • Predefined routes loading
  • Unlimited number of cell layers and custom cell colors
  • SMS test sequence for monitoring SMS successful sending and delivering
  • Screen orientation change (portrait/landscape)
Download [G-NetTrack]

7. Clinometer (Tilt meter)

Clinometer (Tilt meter)

According to wikipedia: An inclinometer or Clinometer is an instrument for measuring angles of slope (or tilt), elevation or inclination of an object with respect to gravity. It is also known as a tilt meter, tilt indicator, slope alert, slope gauge, gradient meter, gradiometer, level gauge, level meter, declinometer, and pitch & roll indicator. This app is very handy to use as a tilt meter while measuring the tilt of antennas on GSM towers.

Download [Clinometer]

8. Smart Compass

10 Useful Android Apps for Telecommunication Engineers

This compass is a tool to search bearings (azimuth) using the built-in magnetic sensors. This smart compass app has 5 significant features.

  1. You may turn the phone into portrait or landscape mode, the heading is fixed.
  2. The Camera’s view is used for reality.
  3. Metal Detector is included to verify the magnetic sensor.
  4. GPS is supported.
  5. You can use your smart compass into different modes e.g Telescope mode,Night mode or Digital mode.

The compass app depends on the performance of your device exactly. If the compass works perfectly, it means that your sensors are perfect, too.

If it is inaccurate, please check that you aren’t being affected by a magnetic field. Also, there are several options to calibrate your device.

Download [Smart Compass]

Connection Stabilizer Booster
Add caption

9. Connection Stabilizer Booster

Does your device often lose data signal and is unable to reconnect even though network is available? Do you miss out important chats, IMs and emails until you turn data connection on and off, maybe multiple times to get reconnected? That is a known issue that affects many people. It can be caused by handset or carrier issues.

If you are having trouble with your cellular data connection, this is the app for you. Loaded with lots of powerful features, this app delivers stable mobile internet connectivity.

Connection Stabilizer Booster is the best mobile data connection stabilizer, reconnector and booster for 2G GPRS, EDGE, 3G and 4G LTE wireless networks.

10. Netmonitor

Netmonitor, Android Mobile Applications for Telecom users

This app Monitor GSM/CDMA and LTE network, current and neighboring cell info’s, signal strength. Use GPS/geolocation. Generate database with custom info on cells. Export log to file CLF/KML. Map shows cell location. List of WiFi access points.

Download [Netmonitor]

11. Google Maps

Android Mobile Applications for Telecom users

The Google Maps app for Android phones and tablets makes navigating your world faster and easier. Find the best spots in town and the information you need to get there. Google maps are now more powerful with following features.

  • Comprehensive, accurate maps in 220 countries and territories
  • Voice-guided GPS navigation for driving, biking, and walking
  • Transit directions and maps for over 15,000 towns and cities
  • Live traffic conditions, incident reports, and automatic rerouting to find the best route
  • Detailed information on more than 100 million places
  • Street View and indoor imagery for restaurants, museums, and more
Though Google maps comes default with android. If you need them for iPhone or iPad you can download from here.

Thursday, 12 January 2017

Required RF DT Drive Test Engineer for Dubai

Location  : Dubai (UAE)

Experience  : 1-3years

Apply by sending CV to hr of company

Comoany : Du Telecom 

 Previous drive testing/site verification/shakedowns/handoff testing experience preferred.
• This position involves being in vehicle for up to 10 hours a day or longer in some situations.
• Looking for quick learners, dependable individuals. 
• Must have a clean driving record. 
• Must be reliable and able to work long hours as required. 
• MapInfo experience required.
• Background check and drug screen required.

- Looking for quick learners, dependable individuals. 
- Must have a clean driving record. 
- Background check and drug screen required. 

Wednesday, 11 January 2017

Erlang B
Calculation Erlang B Table:

The Erlang B is used to work out how many lines are required from a knowledge of the traffic figure during the busiest hour. The Erlang B figure assumes that any blocked calls are cleared immediately. This is the most commonly used figure to be used in any telecommunications capacity calculations.

Number of Channel:  (Ch)
Blocking Rate:  (%)

Available Channel:
Blocking Rate (QoS):
ErlangB Traffic =
Generate Erlang B Table:

Input Max Channel Number:     Input Blocking Rate(%):     
#Numbr of Channel(#)Blocking Rate(%)Traffic (Erlang)

Download ErlangB Formula Excel Add-In :

Excel Add-In for ErlangB Table formula. Best practice for RF Planning Engineer to calculate the traffic capacity.

eUTRAN Parameters Description and Planning

Basic Cell Parameter: ECGI Planning 

  • ECGI = PLMN + Cell Identity 
    • PLMN = MCC + MNC 
    • Cell Identity = eNodeB ID + Cell ID 
  • Parameter Description 
    • ECGI : It indicates the E-UTRAN cell global identifier. 
    • MCC: It indicates the country code of the mobile subscriber. 
    • MNC: Its indicates the code of network used by the mobile subscriber. 
    • Cell Identity: It is of 28 bits. The former 20 bits indicate the eNodeB ID, and the latter 8 bits indicate the cell ID.

Basic Cell Parameter: ECGI Planning 

1. MCC: It is of 3 bits. Its value ranges from 0 to 999.

2. MNC: It is of 2 bits or 3 bits. Its value ranges from 0 to 999.

3. eNodeB ID: Its value ranges from 0 to 1048575. The eNodeB ID is unique to every eNodeB in the same PLMN. When you are planning the eNodeB ID, you need to take the network scale into account. Generally speaking, there is small-sized network, standard-sized network, large-sized network and shared network.
4. Cell ID: It is unique to every cell in the same eNodeB. Its value ranges from 0 to 255.
Basic Cell Parameter: eNodeB ID
1. Standard-Sized Network

The eNodeB ID appears to be ABCDEF in a standard-sized network.
The first two figures (namely AB) indicate the city where the eNodeB is located.
The last figure (namely F) indicates whether it is an indoor eNodeB or an outdoor eNodeB. If the last figure appears to be “0”, it is an indoor eNodeB. Otherwise, it is an outdoor eNodeB. 

2. Large-Sized Network
In most cases, the eNodeB ID appears to be ABCDEF.
The first two figures (namely AB) indicate the city where the eNodeB is located.
Different AB combination indicates different cities. The AB combination can indicate at most 90 cities, each of which can hold 9999 eNodeBs at most. Sometimes, the network may cover more than 90 cities. In this case, use every AB combination to indicate two or more than two cities. Each city can hole at most 5000 eNodeBs.
The last figure (namely F) indicates whether it is an indoor eNodeB or an outdoor eNodeB. If the last figure appears to be “0”, it is an indoor eNodeB. Otherwise, it is an outdoor eNodeB.
In some special cases, if F appears to be “9”, it is a remote eNodeB.

3. Shared Network If it is a shared network, for example the TDD-FDD network in Hi3G project, you will use 6-digit eNodeB ID (ABCDEF).
The first figure (namely A) indicates the network schema. “1” stands for the TDD network, and “5” stands for the FDD network.
The second figure (namely B) indicates the city where the eNodeB is located.
The third figure (namely C) may indicate the administrative region where the eNodeB is located.
The last figure (namely F) indicates whether it is an indoor eNodeB or an outdoor eNodeB. If the last figure appears to be “0”, it is an indoor eNodeB. Otherwise, it is an outdoor eNodeB

Basic Cell Parameter: CP
  • CP Selection for Physical Channel 
    • Parameter Description 
    • This parameter indications the cyclic prefix(CP) of the OFDM symbol,which is used to determine the total number of OFDM symbols within one slot. When this parameter is set to normal cyclic prefix, it implies that seven OFDM symbols are available within one slot. When this parameter is set to extended cyclic prefix, it implies that six OFDM symbol are available within one slot. 
  • Value Range and Step Length 
    • Value Range: enum (normal cyclic prefix, extended cyclic prefix) 
    • Default Value: normal cyclic prefix 
    • Configuration Principles 
    • The cp is dependent on the multipath delay of a radio channel. In the presence of either a large mutipath delay or a large cell radius, extended cyclic prefix is recommended. 
    • The extended cyclic prefix option can suppress radio interference caused by multipath delay, but suffering from lower system capacity, and therefor it is recommended that you set it to the default value.

Basic Cell Parameter: Bandwidth
  • Downlink System Bandwidth 
  • Parameter Description 
    • This parameter indicates the system bandwidth in the downlink, which is used to determine the frequency domain location of the downlink physical channel as well as downlink frequency allocation. 
    • Value Range and Step Length 
    • Value Range: enum (6, 15, 25, 50, 75, 100) Unit RB 
    • Default Value: 100 
  • Configuration Principles 
    • This parameter is dependent on the frequency bandwidth acquired by a mobile operator. The downlink system bandwidth can either be identical to or different from the uplink system bandwidth. 
    • Modifying this parameter can have an impact on downlink resource allocation
  • Uplink System Bandwidth 
  • Parameter Description 
    • This parameter indicates the system bandwidth in the uplink , which is used to determine the frequency domain location of the uplink physical channel as well as uplink frequency allocation. 
    • Value Range and Step Length 
    • Value Range: enum (6, 15, 25, 50, 75, 100) Unit RB 
    • Default Value: 100 
  • Configuration Principles 
    • This parameter is dependent on the frequency bandwidth acquired by a mobile operator. The system uplink bandwidth can either be identical to or different from the downlink system bandwidth. 
    • Modifying this parameter can have an impact on uplink resource allocation
Basic Cell Parameter: Transmit Power 
  • Cell Max Transmit Power 
  • lParameter Description 
    • This parameter specifies the maximum available transmit power. 
  • Value Range and Step Length 
    • Value Range: float (0, …, 50) step 0.1 Unit dBm 
    • Default Value: 43 
  • Configuration Principles 
    • The default value is intended to be used in the following environment:

Basic Cell Parameter: Transmit Power 
  • Cell Transmit Power 
  • lParameter Description 
    • This parameter specifies the used transmit power. 
  • Value Range and Step Length 
    • Value Range: float (0, …, 50) step 0.1 Unit dBm 
    • Default Value: 43 
  • Configuration Principles 
    • For the environment information about the use of the default value, see page 13(Cell Max Transmit Power). 
    • This parameter is dependent on the cell radius and the planned downlink throughput at the cell edge. The greater the cell radius or the planned downlink throughput at the cell edge, the greater the value of this parameter is required.
  • Cell-specific Reference Signals Power 
  • Parameter Description 
    • This parameter specifies the absolute power value of the cell reference signal for each resource element. 
  • Value Range and Step Length 
    • Value Range: int (-60, …, 50) Unit dBm 
    • Default Value: 6 
  • Configuration Principles 
    • This parameter is dependent on cell coverage. The greater the cell coverage, the greater the value of this parameter is required. This parameter should be used for ensuring cell coverage while achieving the maximum power. 
    • A reference signal power value should be properly tuned in accordance with the required power of the downlink control channel at the cell edge based on the link estimation calculated by using such radio parameters as cell type ,cell radius, and antenna height.
Part 2 Tracing Area Planning
Tracing Area Planning : Paging Process
  • The idle UE can monitor the paging message by means of discontinuous reception (DRX). It detects whether the PDCCH carries the P-RNTI on the paging occasion of specified paging frame. The detection results will tell the UE whether this PDSCH carries paging message. 
    • a) If the PDCCH carries the P-RNTI, the UE receives the data from the PDSCH based on the PDSCH parameters. 
    • b) If the PDCCH does not carry the P-RNTI, the UE changes into the dormant status. 
  • Within a DRX period, the UE can receive the PDCCH data when the paging occasion appears, and then receive the PDSCH data based on the actual requirements. 
  • As specified by the LTE physical layer protocol, the radio frame No. repetition period is 1024. Every radio frame is divided into ten sub-frames. In this regard, if the UE wants to know the accurate location of the PDCCH to be monitored, it needs to work out the radio frame No. for this PDCCH, and then work out the paging occasion (PO) for this radio frame number. 
Tracing Area Planning : Paging Parameters
  • DRX Cycle for Paging 
  • Parameter description 
    • This parameter specifies the DRX cycle for paging purposes. 
  • Value Range and Step Length 
    • Value Range: enum (32, 64, 128, 256) Unit; subframe 
    • Default Value:128 
  • Configuration Principles 
    • When the UE is in idle state but the DRX is being used, the UE needs to monitor a P-RNTI in a paging occasion every DRX cycle. 
    • Modifying this parameter can have an impact on other UEs being in idle state.
  • nB used to derive the Paging Frame and Paging Occasion 
  • Parameter description 
    • nB is used to derive the paging frame and paging occasion, as defined in TS36.304 
  • Value Range and Step Length 
    • Value Range: enum (4T, 2T, T, 1/2T, 1/4T, 1/8T, 1/16T, 1/32T) 
    • Default Value:T 
  • Configuration Principles 
    • T represents a paging cycle. For example 2T indicates two default paging cycles. 
    • It indicates the paging attempts made by a radio frame. Its value can be 4T
  • The Parameter to Detemine BCCH Modification Period 
  • Parameter description 
    • This parameter is used to determine the BCCH modfication period(BCCH modification period=N*DRX cycle length for paging).The purpose of this constraint is to ensure that all the UEs being in idle state can monitor the system broadcast change message. 
  • Value Range and Step Length 
    • Value Range: enum (2,4,8,16) 
    • Default Value:4 
  • Configuration Principles 
    • The greater this parameter, the longer the system message is updated.This can have a adverse impact on real-time message update. 
    • The smaller this parameter, the shorter the system message is updated. This can cause the UE to monitor the system Info Value Tag more frequently
Tracing Area Planning 

  • TAC: It indicates a tracing area in a PLMN. It is used to manage the UE location and find the desired UE. 
    • 1. The TAC is unique in a PLMN. 
    • 2. A cell must belong to a tracing area (TA) exclusively. When you configure the TAC, you need to consider the quantity of cells in this TA. 
    • 3. The bonding relation between the TAC and the cell is determined by the cell size, cell type (high-speed cell or low-speed cell) and TA list configuration.
  • Principles 
    • 1.Determine the size of tracing area based on the UE paging capability and the network . 
    • 2.Avoid frequent IRAT cell re-selection and LAU/TAU. 
    • 3.Take the geographical features into account. 
      • a) Do not place the tracing area boundary in the heavy-traffic area (e.g. downtown area, or central business district). Place the boundary in the low-traffic area (e.g. suburban area, or factories). 
      • b) The tracing area boundary should be orthogonal or diagonal to the road. Moreover, keep the overlapped part between tracing areas away from the area where UE moves in high speed. 
      • c) Do not place different tracing area boundaries in the same small area. Otherwise, the UE may frequently update the tracing area information or perform handovers between these tracing areas. 
    • 4.Take the traffic increase tendency into account so as to provide tracing areas with proper paging capacity, traffic capacity and expandability of the tracing area.
Part 3 PCI Planning

PCI Planning (1)

PCI Planning (2)
  • Principles 
    • 1)If there are cell A, cell B and cell C, the cell A and the cell B make up a group of neighboring cells while the cell B and cell C make up another group of neighboring cells, then the cell A and the cell C must use different PCIs. 
    • 2)When you allocating PCIs to different cells controlled by the same eNodeB, all these PCIs should comply with the mod3 principle. Additionally, consider the mod3 principle when you allocating the PCI to the cell and its nearest neighboring cell. 
    • 3)Cells sharing the same PCI should be far from each other as much as possible.
Part 4 PRACH Planning

Random Access Parameter

1.Cell High-speed Attribute
2.Ncs Used to Generate PRACH Preamble
3.Logical Root Sequence Start Number Used to Generate PRACH Preamble
4.Number of Non-dedicated Random Access Preambles
5.Size of Random Access Preambles Group
6.Threshold of Selecting Preamble Group
7.Message Power Offset for Group B
8.the Initial RB Number for Random Access Preambles
9.PRACH Configuration Index
10.Initial Power for Preamble of PRACH
11.Power Ramping Step for PRACH
12.Max retransmit number for PRACH
13.TTI Window Size for PRACH Response
14.Max Number of Messages HARQ Transmissions
15.MAC Contention Resolution Timer
16.Dedicated Preamble Life Time 

Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) is mainly used during the random access process.
The functions of random access in LTE include the following:

-Obtaining UL synchronization during initial access and handovers.
-Assigning a unique C-RNTI for the UE during initial network access establishment.

An example
is when the status is changed from RRC_IDLE to RRC_CONNECTED.
Two scenarios are involved in the random access process:
Scenario I: Contention-Based Access
Scenario II: Contention-Free Access

There are two types of random access: 
  • Synchronized Random Access 
  • Non-synchronized Random Access 
The random access is performed in two modes: 
  • Contention-based access (The UE selects a random preamble) 
  • Contention-free access (The eNodeB assigns a dedicated preamble to the UE.) 
Triggers for Initial Access and Random Access 
  • RRC_IDLE (initial access) 
  • Break of radio link (initial access) 
  • Handover (random access) 
  • RRC_CONNECTED, the downlink data is arriving but the uplink is out-of-synchronization. (random access) 
  • RRC_CONNECTED, the uplink data is arriving but the uplink is out-of-synchronization, or the scheduling request is received from the PUCCH (random access) 
Contention –based Access: applicable to all these five triggers
Contention-free Access: applicable to No.3 and No.4 triggers. 

  • PRACH Format Selection 
  • Considering the resources occupied by the PRACH, and the 
  • coverage area and features of macro cells, please select format 0 
  • when configuring the initial network. 
  • PRACH Root μ Sequence Selection Principles: 
    • (1) The root μ sequences between neighboring cells should be different. 
    • (2) The distance between cells whose root μ sequence should meet requirements. 
    • (3) Select the root μ sequence with smaller cyclic shift for the high speed scenario. 
  • The Ncs in the high speed scenario should be proper so as to address the impact left to the peak data rate check from the cyclic shifting caused by frequency offset. 
  • The recommended value is given in the protocol.

Part 5 Neighboring Cell Planning

Neighboring Cell Planning 
  • The neighboring cell planning aims to ensure voice quality and performance of the entire network as the UEs on the cell edge can be handed over to their neighboring cells with the best signals. 
  • The principles are as follows: 
    • 1.Normally, the geographically adjacent cells are configured as neighboring cells; 
    • 2.Oftentimes, the neighboring cell relation is bilateral; at times, the neighboring cell relation is unilateral; 
    • 3.The number of neighboring cells should be proper. That is, either excessive or few neighboring cells are improper. With excessive neighboring cells, the UE measurement might be overloaded; with few neighboring cells, evitable call drops and handover failures might occur without neighboring cells. At most 16 neighboring cells are recommended for initial configuration. 
    • 4.The neighboring cell planning should be based on the drive test and actual radio environment. For suburban and rural areas, to ensure possible handovers, neighboring cells should be configured even if the inter-site distance is long.
Part 6 Frequency Planning

  • Usually, the entire LTE network adopts the same frequency band. For example, 20 MHz bandwidth is used for the entire network. To avoid ICIC, you need to allocate different bands for different cells. Ensure that two cells with great overlapped coverage should better not use the same frequency resources. 
  • Currently, frequency allocation includes four modes: 
  • Based On Same-Frequency 
  • Based on SFR(Non Exclusive IC) 
  • Based on SFR(Exclusive IC) 
  • Based on Differ-Frequency

Static ICIC Realization
  • Static SFR 
  • As shown in the left figure, the whole frequency band is divided into three equal part. f1, f2 and f3 indicate the outer cell of three sectors.
  • Static FFR 
    • As shown in the right figure, the whole frequency band is divided into four parts. It is similar to the case that the f1 in SFR mode is divided into three equal parts, each of which serves as the outer cell area of three sectors. In this way, cell edge users (CEUs) are separated from cell center users (CCUs), reducing the interference from the side lobe users in the neighboring cell to the CCUs of the service cell.