Telecom Hub

Telecom study materials on LTE, LTE Advance, 5G CDMA and GSM networks. Jobs on RF, Transmission and NOC in allover world, Interview question and answers which collected from experts of telecom, rf drive test tutorials, LTE architecture, Lte Overvew, 2G and 3G and software like TEMS, Genex, NEMO and Xcal how to use those applications. the all it cover OSI layers of wirless network like WIFI,WLAN,VOIP,Volte, LTE protocal based on 3GPP, IEEE standards.

Search Telecom Hub in Google to find us any were

Monday, 23 October 2017

Required RF Coordinator, Drivtest, RNOs and Post Processing engineers for Teleysia Networks.

No of Opngs
Drive Test Engg
RF Co-Ordinator
Post Processing Engg

Interested Candidates can send their CV to "".
Salary - As per Experience and current CTC

Urgently Required Riggers and technicians for Huawei LTE projects For Saudi Arabia.

Vacancies: Rigge/ Driver and Technicain/rigger

Candidate Must fulfill the below requirement.

Required Specification for this job

  1. Telecom Experience.
  2. 3rd party Certificate.
  3. Huawei work permit.
Interested candidate only send their CV along with Third party Certificate and work permit on below mention Email address send your Biodata or resume to given mailid

And Telecom teams are also welcom and terms and condition will be discuss during meeting.Before meeting share your complete teams details with us.

Urgent Requirement:(Only Pakistan Nationals)

LCC Pakistan needs Telecom staff for a long term Project on top urgent basis with details as follows:

  • 12 Telecom Engineers (must have experience of Huawei DBS3900 Wireless System, ICC330 Power system, RTN900 Series Microwave systems.
  • 15 Technicians/Supervisors: (required experience same as above)
  • 25 Riggers : Installation of RRU's, Feeder/IF/CAPRI Cables , RF/MW Antennas/ODU's.
  • Work Areas: Punjab & KPK
  • Base Station: Islamabad & Lahore
  • Benefits: Good salary, TADA, SIM, allowances Etc.
  • Experience: Minimum 3 Yrs
Nomaan Malik: 03458566707
Inam ur Rehman: 03455086891
Start Date: As Soon as Possible


Friday, 20 October 2017

What is LTE ?

  • LTE stands for Long Term Evolution . LTE is a standard for high speed wireless communication for mobile device which are based on technologies like GSM/EDGEetc.
  • It increases the capacity and speed using a different radio interface together with core networks.
  • There are different frequency and bands used in different countries.
  • This technology is designed to provide IP-based data ,voice etc which having streaming speed at least 100 Mbit per second up to as fast as 1 Gbit per second.

Goals of LTE :

  • The goal of LTE is to increase the capacity and speed of wireless networks by using new DSP (digital signal processing) techniques and modulations which were developed around the turn of the millennium.
  • It also use to improve the spectral efficiency, lowering the cost and improving the services.
  • A further goal of LTE was the redesign and simplification of the network architecture to an IP-based system with significantly reduced transfer latency compared to the 3G architecture.

Advantages of LTE :

  • Mobile carriers from all around the globe have upgraded or starting to upgrade their networks to the latest technology.
  • Long Term Evolution networks are the mobile connectivity equivalent to what broadband is to dial up connectivity. By using This technology it is now possible to do anything on the Internet using mobile phones as if we are connected to a fixed broadband line.
  • This technology focuses on increasing both the upload and download speeds compared to its predecessors. LTE is mobile technology which has created an environment in which application developers can create more options that will better the user’s experience.
  • This technology is an all IP system that turn calls into digital data and sends them over the networks.
  • This technology will decreases traffic on networks & improving your call sessions and conversations. When there is lack of capacity LTE can in real time reallocate bandwidth between different callers.
  • Due to this mobile technology more people will access faster Internet through their mobile phones than fixed lines.

How does LTE works ?

  • Current method of moving or transferring the data on internet protocol get changed because of LTE.
  • Now we can send large amount of data through it. the major benefit of the LTE i.e reduces the latency in data transfer.
  • In GSM we uses the technology called as Time Delay Duplex(#TDD) And in CDMA it uses Code Division Duplex(CDD). Both CDD and TDD are the method of-coding information which transfer across the airwaves.
  • CDD is faster than TDD but world is operate on GSM so GSM is improved to the HSPA i.e High Speed Packet Access.

LTE technology based on GSM/EDGE and HSPA.

  • LTE incorporates the Digital Signal Processing which is used for better adjudicate the data packet transfer.
  • Long Term Evolution -travels like radio waves with extra ordinary speed with same bandwidth transfer large amount of data.
  • Long Term Evolution – made the interface and network improvement which helps to increase data capacity and speed.
  • Long Term Evolution – reduces the transfer delay that means data moves or transfer faster.

LTE and Internet of Things.

  • LTE is two or three times more efficient than 3G network and 20 times more efficient than 2G.
  • During the analysis it has estimated that data costing a dollor to send over 2G network . while it can sent over an LTE network for a mere five cent.
  • Because of this powerful economic incentive, operators around the world are aggressively re-farming their 2G as well as 3G spectrum and move quickly to LTE.
  • IoT friendly LTE chipset are the support for the new wave of LTE device development ,and best solutions are flexible, efficient and low cost. Today there are may chipset modules available which have been designed for the IoT.
  • Highly optimized for M2M and IoT devices these new solution provide all features and functionality required to build robust,long life LTE devices for many application at low cost.

Switch and Hub. What difference does it make?


It's a multi-spots device (VENTS 5 Port-8 Port-24 Port-48 port) is connecting the devices and some of them in a single LAN. Switch and hardware. (know ip - we will speak in detail in upcoming lessons)

The straight have different port (Openings in the operator) of which 48 port and 24 Port-16 Port-8 Port-5 Port. And every port (slot) in the switch comes out of a cable to only one device (it can't be shared at the port one more than the device) and the starter is installed in the RJ45, and also the cables also have the speed of the switch. The concept of Ethernet (protocol related to the intra net is responsible for communication between devices in the intra net).

Types in speed:

Each switch has different speeds of it:
Ethernet: an switch speed of 10 Mega-10 Mbps.
Fast Ethernet: Speed 100 Mbps.
Giga Ethernet: Speed 1000 Mbps.

All these same straight can easily be distinguished only by reading the hole or the label behind the switch or the catalogue with the switch when it is purchased and through which the quality of the switch and the speed of different openings can be found.

Also, cable can be installed in the ignition, but it's better to share the ratio and proportionality between cable and switch,
Example:Cable Ethernet + Cable Cat 5 Switch.Cable Fast Ethernet + Cable Cat 5 E Switch.Cable Giga Ethernet + Cable Cat 6 Switch.

Why do we do that, like we said, we can ride any cable, whatever it is in the switch, and it works all the time, but it's better to speed up the cable speed to match the speed of the switch so that the service is better and better and faster, Cable Cable Cable 5 with swish open speed will do the service for sure but not at the required level because the speed of the cable will be less than the speed of the switch and therefore we will not benefit from both as required (speed transfer) Data center will be slow because the speed of the cable is higher than the speed of the switch and also if we deliver the cable cat 6 with switch Ethernet will also serve the service but not properly because the speed of the cable will be higher than the speed of the switch The velocity of the data center will be weak because the speed of the cable is higher than the speed of the switch and so.. and the straight vary at the rate of speed, as well as the number of openings, whenever the speed of the vents is higher, the higher the price of the On the market.

Operator's m.o.

He works in a smart way to transfer data center by creating a table in two columns:
Goal Destination Pc5
Source Source

Example: Switch + 5 computer devices

Device No. 1 (source) sent data (film, song, file) to device no. 5 (Target), the starter is sending it first to all devices (Pc1, Pc2, Pc3, Ps4, Pc5, and when device number 5 the data center and not return it again to the starter, the operator knows that device number 5 is the target, and it is stored in its schedule. Don't repeat the same error sending data center to all devices again.

Flame Hub

It's a a device that can only be segregated from the operator, and it used to be used in an old one, but he was dealing with the data as if it were electrical waves and not dealing with it. Data, and don't understand anything, and it's simply like the power of electricity that delivers electricity to the video, TV and cassette together, it doesn't understand something (does not know IP) and sends the data with the cool system, which is when a member wants The network sends data no matter how large it is. It sends it to all devices and the data owner only accepts it. The rest of the organs are you back to flame, causing problems in the network and slow.

The Word " broadcast " is that it means " broadcast whether it's radio or Television, etc.

Example: Radio Radio. The Radio is broadcasting the content via the radio but does not require the arrival or hearing of the radio from each user and does not require that each radio is compatible with the radio frequency and does not require every listener to hear the broadcast.
If device no. 1 (PC 1) sends a message (may be Emile, song or film, etc) to device no. 5 (PC 5) the hub was receiving the message from the And instead of sending it directly to device 5, it was sent to all devices (PC 1, Pc2, Pc3, Pc4, Pc5) and device number 5 will do For the message to him and he will not return it to hub, the rest of the devices will return the message to hub again (not directed to it) and then hub will receive these messages from the devices
(Pc2, Pc3, Pc4) and send it back to the device no. 1 (Pc1), which is sent back to hub with the aim of delivering it to device 5 (Flame). He received the message, and this is how this process goes on a lot in the network, passes through the devices, flame and cables, which eventually leads to stifling the network and its abdomen, thereby causing the so-called loop or the sudden death of the network.

Loop: the meaning of this term is the "death of the network" and it means that the continued of data center within the network is in an endless loop and thus leads to the death of the network, i.e. the lack of reception or reception in the network and stop it.

And we deduce from the earlier that he was a stupid device in his work, which led to his failure.

What's the difference between the switch and hub?

Flame B and switch deals with the title of the network card, means the device to be dealt with.
The Hub sends the data center to all computers or related web devices, while the switch sends the data center to the target device only.
The number of hub ports ranges between 4 and 12 ports, while the number of switch ranges between 8 and 48 ports.
The Hub doesn't have an operating program. The switch is probably an operating program.
Hub costs are often lower than the cost of the switch.

At the end of our lesson, we've got a full knowledge of the switch, the way it works and its kind in terms of speed, and also we know about the flame and the way it used and the difference between them. It's a simple contribution to the delivery of a statement

Thursday, 19 October 2017

There are Three Types of fiber Cables

  1. Single mode
  2. Multi mode.
  3. plastic optical fiber (POF)

Within these categories, fibers are identified by their core and cladding diameters expressed in microns (one millionth of a meter).
For example e.g. 9/125 micron single mode fiber and 50/125 micron multi mode fiber or 62.5 micron multi mode fiber. 
9 micron, 50 micron, 62.5 micron represent the diameter dimension for core
125 micron is the diameter dimension for cladding.

Single Mode cable

Single Mode Cable is a single stand (most applications use 2 fibers) of glass fiber with a diameter of 8.3 to 10 microns that has one mode of transmission.  Single Mode Fiber with a relatively narrow diameter, through which only one mode will propagate typically 1310 or 1550nm. Carries higher bandwidth than multimode fiber, but requires a light source with a narrow spectral width. Synonyms mono-mode optical fiber, single-mode fiber, single-mode optical waveguide, uni-mode fiber.
Single Modem fiber is used in many applications where data is sent at multi-frequency (WDM Wave-Division-Multiplexing) so only one cable is needed - (single-mode on one single fiber)
Single-mode fiber gives you a higher transmission rate and up to 50 times more distance than multimode, but it also costs more. Single-mode fiber has a much smaller core than multimode. The small core and single light-wave virtually eliminate any distortion that could result from overlapping light pulses, providing the least signal attenuation and the highest transmission speeds of any fiber cable type.   

Single-mode optical fiber is an optical fiber in which only the lowest order bound mode can propagate at the wavelength of interest typically 1300 to 1320nm.

Single Mode cable

Multi-Mode cable

It has a little bit bigger diameter, with a common diameters in the 50-to-100 micron range for the light carry component (in the US the most common size is 62.5um). Most applications in which Multi-mode fiber is used, 2 fibers are used (WDM is not normally used on multi-mode fiber).  POF is a newer plastic-based cable which promises performance similar to glass cable on very short runs, but at a lower cost.

Multimode fiber gives you high bandwidth at high speeds (10 to 100MBS - Gigabit to 275m to 2km) over medium distances. Light waves are dispersed into numerous paths, or modes, as they travel through the cable's core typically 850 or 1300nm. Typical multimode fiber core diameters are 50, 62.5, and 100 micrometers. However, in long cable runs (greater than 3000 feet [914.4 meters), multiple paths of light can cause signal distortion at the receiving end, resulting in an unclear and incomplete data transmission so designers now call for single mode fiber in new applications using Gigabit and beyond.  
Multi-Mode cable

Plastic optical fiber (POF)

POF (or Polymer optical fibre) is an optical fiber that is made out of polymer. Similar to glass optical fiber, POF transmits light (for illumination or data) through the core of the fiber. Its chief advantage over the glass product, other aspect being equal, is its robustness under bending and stretching. Optical fiber used in telecommunications is governed by European Standards EN 60793-2-40-2011.
Plastic optical fiber (POF)

What is fiber to the home (FTTH)? - Structure and components

Rapid, low-latency and high volume information communication is rapidly growing worldwide, which has as well increased the need for inexpensive high-speed access for millions of Internet users and customers.

What’s the solution?
Internet Service Providers found that Fiber To The Home is the future-proof solution that could solve this problem.
FTTH is one of the most important technologies for today and future’s networks, because not only it increases the access to bandwidth, but reduces equipment and maintenance cost while intensely improving Quality of Service.
Projections specify that individual user Internet use will reach 100Mbps and will eventually go to 1Gbps. And fiber optic is the only transmission medium that can support such speeds at long distances.

FTTH Networks Architecture
There are two types of FTTH architecture categories Active Optical Network (AON) and Passive Optical Network(PON).
At this point you would ask, is there’s a difference?
According to the Fiber Optic Association, Active Optical Networks are the easiest way to connect homes with fiber, because
Fiber connects homes to the ISP. But, although it provides the maximum amount of bandwidth, it tends to be expensive because it requires every home to have a dedicated fiber.
Instead, Passive Optical Networks make it possible to share expensive fiber components due to the use of splitters, which divide an input and allows to broadcast services to several homes.
Therefore, PON architecture offer more advantages because a single shared optical fiber can support multiple users.
FTTH Network Equipment
FTTH deployments require a lot of planning and elements to expand from the Access Node to the subscribers’ premises.
In a fiber optic network there are two basic elements:
An Optical Line Terminal (OTL) located at the ISP side and an Optical Network Unit (ONU) placed at the customer’s premises.
The connection between these two elements is made with both optical and non-optical equipment and components.
Non-optical equipment consists in
  • Hardware
  • Cabinets
  • Patch panels
  • Fiber closures
  • Pedals
And when it comes to optical components we are talking about splices, couplers and adapters, connectors, fiber cables, connectors, splitters, patch cords, drop cables and drop terminals.
Passive equipment
Fiber cables
Installing fiber optic cables is one of the most expensive procedures when deploying a PON Network. Cable installation can be underground (burial), inside ducts and on poles and towers (aerial).

According to the Fiber Optics Association, these passive elements take an input and divide it to send the signal to several users, which dramatically reduces costs.
Simplex connectors are the most used in FTTH deployments.
The most common used are:
  • SC/APC.
  • ST/APC
  • LC/APC
Multifiber connectors are also acquiring popularity, because they can hold from 4 to 72 fibers at the same time, being the MTO the most popular one.
The most common connector type used in PON network is APC (Angle Physical Contact) connector, because its eight degree polished ferrule minimizes loss:
  • Return loss: -60 dB.
  • Typical loss: 0.5 dB.
Which avoid transmission problems. APC connectors can be certainly identified by their green color
But how do fiber connectors mate?
For fiber optic connectors to mate between each other they need couplers, also called adapters, these elements come in several versions allowing to connect simplex or duplex cables.
              beyondtech apc couplers single mode
Fiber optic couplers are also designed for multimode and single mode cables and are generally used to connect cables with similar connectors
  • SC/APC to SC/APC.
  • ST/APC to ST/APC
  • LC/APC to LC/APC.
But hybrid fiber optic couplers accept dissimilar connectors, so you can mate:  
  • SC/APC to ST/APC.
  • SC/APC to LC/APC
  • LC/APC to LC/APC and so on.
Fiber optic coupler types are as diverse as fiber optic connectors. They can be FC, LC, SC, ST and MT-RJ and they also have different colors according to how the connector ferrule is polished:
  • Green is for APC.
  • Blue is for single mode PC and UPC.
  • Beige is for multimode PC and UPC.
As with connectors, SC/APC couplers along with ST/APC and LC/APC are the most used fiber optic couplers in FTTH passive optical networks.

FTTH boxes

The FTTH council points out that when it comes to premises (houses, large and small businesses) drop cables typically terminate onto the structure and externally route to a termination box.
Termination boxes are equipped with:
  • Splice trays: Let fibers from outdoor cables to be spliced to pigtails that then will be connected with the Optical Network Unit (ONU), the point where the passive network ends and the active equipment is installed.
  • Fiber optic couplers to allow the connection.
Beyondtech supplies couplers in simplex and duplex style for single mode and multimode applications. SC/APC couplers are one of the most reliable kind of adapters, which is why they are broadly used in LAN, WAN and CATV systems besides FTTH.
Source: Beyondtech
Cover Image: Vincent Laforet

Wednesday, 18 October 2017

Network Engineer Needed for Saudi Arabia

Network Engineer Needed for Saudi Arabia

A reputable business firm is looking to hire a Network Engineer with the following experience and qualifications:

Requried details

CCNA prefers to have a diploma of communication with a certificate and no mind of technicians holding a secondary certificate if they have more experience than three years in addition to the certificate certificate.

  • A very good hands-on experience in security systems especially firewalls 
  •  A very good hands-on experience in routing a switching\
  •  Minimum five years of relevant experience (a must)
  •  CCNP Security certified (a must)
  •  Bachelor degree or diploma in a relevant field

Location : Saudi Arabia

Required Telecom Technician for SaudiArabia

Telecom Technician Job in Saudi Arabia for Only Saudi's

Jobs for the saudis only to work in a contracting company with Saudi contacts
Jeddah, Dammam, jubail, al hassa, Al Hollow, najran, yanbu, Taif, yard, veil

Required Telecommunication Technician, number in 20

  1. He prefers to have worked on: ‏Switches , Router , IP telephone.
  2. He has the ability to do the following tasks:
  3. ‏Initial troubleshoot and configuration (Switches & Firewall)
  4. CCNA prefers to have a diploma of communication with a certificate and no mind of technicians holding a secondary certificate if they have more experience than three years in addition to the certificate certificate.

Languages requested: Arabic / English.
Note when sending cv please status: (job technician)

Tuesday, 17 October 2017

Video Broadcasting is the distribution of video content via any mass communication medium. It is used for private recreation, exchange of messages, experimentation, self-training and emergency communications.
One of the most commonly used formats for the recording , compression and distribution of high definition video is the H.264 or MPEG-4 fomat. This format requires high computing power and flexibility to meet the different decoding platforms, the numerous image formats, and the various application evolutions.
On the other hand, Video encoding algorithms exhibit a large amount of parallelism, data, tasks and instruction level parallelism lending themselves to efficient execution on many-core processors.